History of the Jewish community in Byczynie. Consideration of Otto Fritz Glauera Geschichte des Judentums zu Pitschen. Eine Betrachtung von Otto Fritz Glauer
ENTRY Under this title in 1942. in "Heimat Kalender" published text that represents an extremely interesting facts from the history of our city about coexistence and intermingling of two cultures: the German and Jewish. Unfortunately, the author of the article published in the time of Nazi Germany no objectivity in the presentation of historical facts. Biased coverage theme makes its pronunciation in modern times is not acceptable, therefore, was made its rewording: italic saved the original text translations, while the antykwą paraphrase passages. The purpose of these treatments was rejection of the opinion ("Reflections"-as in the title, the author called it) and focus on the presentation of a topic in the most objective way. For the first 500 years of the existence of our city, somewhere to the mid-18th century, there was people of Jewish origin in Byczynie. Of the old Act, we learn only that in 1358. Prince Louis I issued the Jew Musche Lazarusowi letter entitled him to travel after the Duchy of BRZEG and his cities, and Jewess by Danielissie such "libertate et treugis", which guarantee (libertas = freedom, treuga = room). Louis II in 1414. issued the same letter Jew Oeserowi, and Councillors of Byczyny vowed to respect it, if the traveling merchant had them in honor. Besides, for half a century of the era including piastowska and habsburską membership of Byczyny was not one the names of the living the Jew. It is at first sight surprising, but on closer examination will soon be clarified. In the middle ages Byczynę was, without exception, zmagająca with a variety of difficulties in life, that at the same time suffered during the storms of war and was tormented wars (…) Production and sale of beer and vodka was the exclusive right of the city and its inhabitants. (…) All other trade was restricted to the kramarskich in the middle of the market. He was there: silk and tulle, food oil and combustible, herring and candles, wine and vodka, SOAP, wax, sugar, pepper, Muscat, bay leaf, figs, raisins and nuts. The seven owners of these bud was ensured by a very strictly his privilege and immediately brought an effective and vigorous action, when one Jew Hirschel Freibusch tried to settle in Byczynie as tenant distilleries. Medieval Byczyna does not give Jewish interests absolutely no action fields. It is, however, soon had to change. Already at the end of the Habsburg Dominion and in the initial period of the existence of the State of Prussia further behavior of the existing privileges granted turned out to be impractical, cumbersome and incompatible with the Prussian order. That's why Frederick II ordered the lease assets including those that better and more profitable will use them. The first tenant (1748) was Wenzel von Lubowski on Łubowicach (German. Lubowitz-. ), which was paying 1000 guilders lease: 500 podskarbiemu and 500 to the City Council. The great fire of 1757, which destroyed the whole city turned out to be a breakthrough in all areas of city life. The town was founded anew from the ashes. Increased traffic, the fair was intensely visited, permanently increased the number of inhabitants. In the year 1759 municipal brewery and distillery lease Kaspar Wiesner, and in the year 1764 Wilhelm Pӓtzold. Both had passed its lease with subsequent tenants, which they were: Abraham Moisis from Krzanowic (German. Kranowitz-. the crowd.) and officials from Kluczbork: Jonas Abraham and Berthold Simon. These three people religion of Moses were the first Jews in Byczynie. With their arrival started the arrival of people of Jewish origin to our city. A few years later there were already 15 by the total number of inhabitants of 1160. Doing business in Byczynie was not, however, the easiest, because in many ways it was fight with competitors. As further stated in the article: (…) szynkarz Jonas Abraham in 1764. tried to, as it is in the file called "distilled water", and enter in Byczynie new, manufactured by liquors. The apothecary and Mayor of the city and nadmistrz the Guild has forbidden (…) Disappointed for the use of such stratagems. Dearness, when in the same year the purchase of naturaliów1 was forbidden, the Jews do, however, have proliferated to the complaint against him. (…) In the new century, the Jewish community was composed of 32 people, and in 1830. -with 88 on 1578 inhabitants. These people do not have even the rights of the inhabitants of Christian and have been subject to various restrictions. They had to for example. that have used the protection of the country and its rights to pay the "tolerance" (for fault tolerance), which was varied from 2 to 30 thalers a year. Paid it in or. Fryderykowskim2 or in gold, to rule out tampering per circulating coins (…). Also, arriving Jews had to make a day, depending on the length of their stay in Byczynie. Just in time for the big Christmas political opinion was against centralisation of this fee. Just as Jewish nurse and Polish Jews, who wanted to use the visit of Dr. Maydeohna do not have to pay this tax. In the year 1809 Jew Bodlander wanted to lease shooting range. His application was rejected on the ground that satutowe provisions does not allow. In the year 1816 Itzek Guttman tried to get the lower etażę3 House # 8 in market, but was checked with justification, that the public would be reluctant to the fact that a Jew living in the Town Hall (on the top floor of the House # 8 in the market were the premises of the Office of the Mayor. Today's Town Hall was then municipal court). (…) When in 1835. City authority moved the weekly market from Thursday to Saturday, the Jewish society kept him away, causing an unbearable price decrease. Magistrate was forced to a weekly market slip on Thursday. The other animal Fairs and markets could not now occur on Jewish holidays, for this reason, the Office of the magistrate led the Jewish calendar. In 1840. Byczyna had 1819 inhabitants in this 96 Jews. Their number in 40 years has tripled, while the number of inhabitants has increased by one-third. With 33 houses on the market 10 was held by the citizens of Jewish origin. The city had 26 wyszynków, of which 13 were in the hands of the Jewish. Ten years later, featured two Jews in College magistrate: merchants Abraham Erich Mühsam and Samuel Heilbrann. In 1853. assume the Jewish municipality, which in addition to the city covered the village: Gosław, Kostów, Maciejów, Nasale, Miechowę Polanowice, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Proślice, Komorzno and Sierosławice, in which all the "Arrenden" (bars dzierżawne-. the crowd.) were in the hands of the Jewish. Approval of that fact by the Government occurred two years later. The Executive Board of the municipality were: Samuel Heilborn-szynkarz beer and vodka (4), "Erich Mühsam-Distiller and szynkarz (2) and David Troplowitz-merchant goods cut (9). When the Jewish community has exceeded a hundred established synagogue (elsewhere the author says about Betstube-the House of prayer-. the crowd.) (Schumachergasse) 4, cited Kantor was Salomon Kohn and hired proved teacher Aschera Rosensteina. From Weaver's Daniel Pawlik (Bleiche 3) 5 redeemed cottage. "poisonous Buda" and there created a kosher (kosher or-clean). Then the Jewish gmina was complete. (…) When in 1865. was founded in the Jewish cemetery. Kluczborskiej, municipal authorities have made to the cost of the 90 mark, recognizing the need for this object. Also the clergy remains absolutely remained tolerant to citizens of Jewish origin, were, after all, a "chosen nation of God's". The priests had nothing against the General citizens in baptism their children choose Hebrew names. In Christian books of the baptismal parties often find at this time names: Jacob, Daniel, Samuel, and Lea, Esther, Rebecca. People started using the word Jewish interest, took also part way of speech and behavior. (…) Even the children of school age were known words: dalles = no money, eppes = a little, ganef = loop geseire = saying, kapores = spoiled, kalle = Darling, kif = not matched hat, koscherein, massel = happiness, meschugge = crazy, mischpoke = kinship, pleite = insolvency, * = face, redbach = profit, riffke = female, Schabbes = holiday, schikse = Jewish girl, schlamassel = calamity, schmu = bogus profit schmus = rumors, schafel = poor, freefe = unclean tinnef = dirt, etc. (…) Over the door of the Town Hall on the memorial plaque [sponsored by] Pastor Adam Quasiusa from Wroclaw, containing Hebrew letters the name "Yahweh", and on the pulpit in the Church of St. Claus hung with Tapestry Embroidered snowflake, also in Hebrew letters, motto: "speak, Lord, your servant is listening." When the House of prayer at Schumachergasse is no longer enough, the municipality won the div (Stockgasse 24) 6 and the sublime Temple (Tempel-. ), which in 1882. by Rabbi Dr. Minza with Kępna solemnly consecrated. The Jewish community had the 107 people. At this point the author cites in his article a few stories of that time. When choosing a mayor April 6, 1884. Merchant Samuel Goldstein (32) appointed the Chief of police Feją to after the election gave him a window sign, on which the candidate fell choice. Goldstein sent a congratulatory telegram Wołczyna to selected urban podskarbiemu Scholzowi, before he knew anything about the outcome of the election. He was happily amazed and surprised. The official message was given by the municipality until an hour later. It is understood that the newly elected Mayor after taking office the kind Jew you find some kindness. At that time many Polish Jews were arriving and delivers cheap poultry for the weekly market. At the turn of the centuries could be purchased from these dealers goose 2 brand, duck for a brand, and a pair of chicken to baking for 50 Pfennig. What the market was not offered, by going to individual homes. The author quotes an example statement by dealer: "God, the lady will take but a couple of these the nicest chicken? I lose my 10 Pfennig on the play, God will punish me! Because this is the last ten, I'll leave you to it so cheap. I have them again to drag myself to the House by the big sand? As I am an honest man, I will give them to you all ten for the 3 brand. for 2.50. -take the Lady, by me, by 2 brands. You have donated, kind Lady, and I'm a ruined man. " In the last decade the number of Jews has slowly decreased. After the victorious expeditions of 1864, 1866 and 1870 roku7 in our town there has been appreciable recovery, faster population growth, increasing prosperity (…) Abraham Knoch, Isaak Altmann Jakob Oscher, David Troplowitz and Salomon Schweitzer, Nathan Erlich and Samuel Goldstein gathered in their fathers and decided to stay in our city, and their children have gone out into the world to Wroclaw, Berlin and Hamburg. Byczyna became too small, too tight-city offers greater opportunities for earning a living. During the war of the światowej8 the number of Jews continue to decline. The first byczynianin, who left the city when heading for danger and Russians already in Wielun, a Jewish butcher Elias Lewkowitz. At the end of the war, the number of citizens of Jewish origin is only 34 in the number of overall inhabitants of 2567 people. Religious rites of this small municipality held now Rabbi of Kluczbork. In the first post-war years (…) in Byczynie there are new names. Jew Ismar Matzdorf acquired the Villa Magneta (Wallstraße 3) 9 and from there he animated the fur trade and waste, while his son settled here as a doctor. Byczyński steam mill acquired merchant Moritz Fröhlich with Siemianic, merchants Skop and Abraham opened two stores with Manufaktura, the Jew Max Perl took over a new Drogerię, the Jewish lawyer Kurzweg-practice of the deceased notary Klopscha and Martin Heymann-distillery. With all the area's innkeepers on the best ran their business. His distillery was daily full cast until the curfew. (…) And here again we have a handful of interesting facts: in November 1923. at the end of the inflation of Polish and Jewish traders they travelled our border, to buy new German value durable money and carry across the border, which could result in disastrous consequences. The Government looked at this speculation helplessly (…). Byczyńscy the Jews were, of course, all Democrats, and Heymann did not spared money and vodka, when it was necessary to incite workers to disrupt the Assembly of the right-wing party. (…) Fur trader (leather) Nathan Glogowski was an honorary member of the gymnastics Association and when during the festivities of Christmas celebrated by this relationship was at the end of the "American" auctioned off a Christmas tree has the respected Jew przebitkę. (…) When in 1922 in Byczynie there have been fighting party and election Deputy "Knüppel-Kunze" 10 room "Dalibor" 11 gave a talk in which there was sharp against the Jews and their destructive impact on society. In addition, telling ridiculous jokes people of Jewish origin. And suddenly, to the delight of the guests present at this meeting found the speaker an opponent in my friend the Jew and, at the same time, the administrator byczyńskiego the steam mill, who felt obliged to stand up for his boss Moritz Fröhlicha. He, however, arguments and had intimidated sneaking escape the room, because it does not find any support, and the speaker had prześmiewców on their side. In these sad times of affected Jewish complaints to Katowice and the League Nations in Geneva about the harassment. Similar reports to their authorities offer their knowledge workers, officials and teachers-they wrote about unjust treatment of the population of the religion of Moses. On the other hand, it has been reported for example. on Miller's Moritz Fröhlicha in connection with the purchase by it of cereals during the inflation (…). In those days byczyńscy Jews lived on a fairly high level for example. Abraham Knoch had been working on his house, endowed it with luxurious furnishings, but it all has been known to merchant flip Heymann had the most elegant home accessories in the area. At this point Glauer CITES trivia about the coexistence of two religions: when the suffragan Wojciech from Wroclaw came to Byczyny in 1922. on confirmation, it was by the Jewish delegation solemnly welcomed, Cardinal was particularly pleased. Before Christmas in a variety of Jewish stores were shining decorated Christmas tree (…). When in Byczynie strengthened nationalist, for citizens of Jewish origin was a sign of the end of your stay in our city. Wyprowadzali systematically, though reluctantly made way. In 1938. There were only 20 3003 inhabitants. However, when spread the news of the murder of Mr Bill Rath by Grünspana-a man of Jewish origin, then, as the author of the article, it's the last time for those twenty. The crowd demonstrated especially against distillery Heymanna and shoe store Ehrlich on the market, forcing its closure and eventually trip the last representatives of the Jewish community of Byczyny, and thus their 200-year history here on the site ended. The footnotes:
- agricultural produce or garden
- Friedrich d'or. 1/2 Friedrich d'or = 2 i1/2 talara silver
- today. Błonie
- today. UL. Florianska
- 1864-the so-called. Danish war, 1866-Austro-Prussian War 1870 Austrian-French restaurants. All three dates are associated with the so-called. Prussian wars. Finally, in the year 1871 there was to the creation of the II Reich, or the German Empire.
- It's about the first world war.
- Today. UL. Embankment
- der Knüppel-stick, Kunze-the name of one of the heroes of fairy tales for children; portable hotspot. each. "Knüppel-Kunze" this is probably the name of the militias.
- today. Hotel "Adler"
Source: Heimat-Kalender des Kreises Kreuzburg o/s, 1942, Jg. 18 http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/publication/229624/edition/217041 translation: Elizabeth Bereska introduction, elaboration and footnotes: Anna Bereska-Trybuś