A visit to the Protestant parish church in Byczynie, Upper Silesia.
Eine Besuch der evangelischen Pfarrkirche zu Pitschen Os.
From K. Fleijcher, Kluczbork, Upper Silesia. Heimatkalender des Kreises Kreuzburg Os. , 1931, page. 72-77
The publication was taken from the pages of the Silesian digital library.
Document 1 2 3 4 5 one fine may day train swinging relationship Kluczbork-Costs drove me after busy once the Poznań railway line in the North-East corner of our home province of Upper Silesia. The purpose of my spring trip through this country was our dear old town-Byczyna. Already from far away were welcomed me erected above the ridges the Upper Silesian uplands numerous towers of this small border town. Focused on the narrow space appearing interesting your proud head in almost transparent air of the hot afternoon. The most powerful among them belonged to the najszacowniejszego of the Evangelical parish church. Today her on were my visits. However, I did I went immediately to the designated purpose, but my first steps already made by a respected and rich willową gubernya, on Hill Street, which leads to the next and new-Gołkowice Polish border. At the height of the new cemetery, I stopped. Again, as often before, I enjoyed the landscape of the old town. And again it was a great joy for my łaknącego a beautiful eye, engulf whole painterly and poetic charm of this medieval town. Sea green and flowering trees flowed toward me numerous red brick roofs. Surrounded by old, yet strong walls lay in front of my feet, Upper Silesian "Rothenburg" *. Almost too defiantly and proudly dominated by massive brick towers surrounded by this sweet Idyll. Endless, łany cereals in zamglonej dali calmly close horizon, contribute to the sleep experience the horizon line. Do not get through to me no noises. Idyll dreamed about your fairytale dream. "A living model of the German construction of cities" dreamed about "wise giant boy, that he built with his LEGO bricks." The image remains vivid in my memory. Lingering, I left the Hill and I directed my steps narrow path through fields and gardens down to the former moat. With the bushes despite hours of the afternoon came the birds Twitter. The brick walls of the old village wall hanging fresh, delicate fern. In the moat beneath the wall przemykały agile trout football my shadow. And then I stood in the shade of tall trees on parish pond, in which water bounced off a stately image of the Cathedral of St. Nicholas. Degrees have been carrying me above by a breach in the wall of the church square. In front of me loomed a powerful until the sky brick building. I was on purpose, because this temple with its changing history and the many peculiarities found herself back in the center of my interest. Now it has to be also the subject of my subsequent research. The size, beauty, and durability are external signs of byczyńskiego parish church and the building of the old days do not want under any terms to adhere to the surrounding area. So this begs the question, what our ancestors made to so proved and beautiful building. Otto Fritz Glauer in his latest work, "as it was in the House" ("Wie's daheim war") gives a few reasons. First, could it be the pride and confidence and the Turinese Franconian settlers, who mentioned the wonderful Cathedral in his old homeland and on the edge of przesieki [pʂɛˈɕɛki] ("Grenzwaldes") did not want them with. There were also practical reasons. Byczyna had, like other cities in our homeland defense, Castle, which might in the war times to offer residents a safe haven. That's why they built the House of God as the "Church of the defensive", similar to the Church of St. John in Paczków. Such defensive churches, according to the applications of the deceased native writer Elizabeth Grabowski, is located in Silesia and in the Czech Republic a number of. Finally, this powerful building is an expression of loneliness byczyńskich inhabitants already in the previous century. "They had our ancestors an infinite number of time, did not know each other yet constantly nervous race today's life of the day of industrialization. Can love and peace to delve into his work and so grew the beautiful Cathedral on the Slavic East as a sign of German hard work and faith ". (Glauer) The question, when this church was built, there is no reliable answer. However, it should be assumed that it was built shortly after the attack the Mongols between 1242-1250. Today's volume surely if not yet obtained. You can also assume that the first Foundation in many basic forms were similar to today's. Nave of the cross and the aisles have been included until later. Of course, was at the church cemetery is surrounded by a special wall that residents in times of war also gave protection. This wall stood by 600 years, until in 1842, he was pulled down. From 1750 he no longer took place of burials in the old cemetery. The dead have found a new resting place in the cemetery of St. Hedwig. Where once szumiały cemetery lindens, is today the Pebble empty square that stately building provides open space. If we enter now to this temple by the most open during the day, the gate on the north side, embrace us twilight and cool brick Gothic buildings. To the East is located the choir is typical for Catholic churches. Initially, the Church was dedicated to the Apostle Peter. Later the path taken by the patron saint of Santa Claus. Yet today there is the term "ad St. Nikolaum". Also the seal of the Church with the heading "Sigillum ecclesiae par Bicinensis" contains an image zyniącego the wonders of the Bishop of Myra with three prills gold and griffins. Naturally, the statue of the patron saint of fixed on the main altar between figures Virgin and Mary Magdalene. The constant here when the Church for a long time he was already a Protestant. Only when the renovation in the year 1886 has been removed. Today she found its place in the sacristy. In 1925, was presented at the exhibition the great patriotic war in Kluczbork. In the following years, it can be viewed on ecclesiastical art exhibition in Wrocław. Insiders and experts determine the "statue of Nicholas" as remarkable and precious work part in sculptor of bygone days. After the renovation in the years 1790-1791 and 1886-1888 has been preserved little works of art. Among them one valuable statue of Christ takes a prominent place. Despite several failures in the turbulent years of war was salvaged, but to the present year, hidden by modern altar before the eyes of visitors the Church as "too harsh". Dr. k. says it "is a very large figure, which in your broken natręctwie recalls Grünewald. It is undoubtedly one of the best late Gothic sculptures. Probably comes from the Kraków School of sculpture which is influenced by the Nuremberg and may have been sometime around the year 1530. Byczyński native writer o. f. Glauer describes the value of this work the following words: "this form of suffering of the son of God and scratches his head lowered are noble and solemn. There is nothing from the first night in the lightness of the Roman or Greek-style bronze casting, which so often we meet in churches. Here is a true folk art that respects no smoothness of figures and faces. But just in the simple power of Imaging is its deep, the word '. It seems that after the comments thought about exposure of the figure of Christ, because in the summer of 1930, it was worthy of a place in the Church, namely a large wall of the southern nave. Less works of art as more to the peculiarities of the Church include the epitaph of the first Protestant pastor of Byczyny. This is the oil painting the picture that shows the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan. This simple wooden plaque on the forehead contains the following inscription: "the epitaph of the late Lord Albert Tans 1544-66 the first Protestant pastor of this church, which still bears traces of the plundering by the poles and Tatars from the year 1588. According to the epitaph of the year 1544 is widely recognized for the year of the introduction of the Protestant Reformation, although Byczynie still are exchanged and other dates. Further historically important dates are placed in stallach in the chancel. In 1694-1707 byczyński Church was for the last time in the hands of the Catholics. Pretty nice feature paintings on the walls of the altar that depict the images of people associated with the history of the Church and its new science. Like most churches of the byczyński Parish Church served as the burial place for high-ranking and distinguished personalities. Stores from two centuries under the floor of the altar the corpses of Prince Maximilian, who took part in the battles of King Charles VII. In Poland, in the battle of Poltava he was wounded and taken prisoner. Three months after the battle, with only 17 years old, the Prince died 25.09.1709 year in dubno, Poland (now Ukraine). At the request of his mother was to be buried on German soil. For this reason, brought delay to German border town Byczyny and buried here in the parish church. However, quickly forgotten Tomb. It was only during the tests, which the Swedish King have been taken, the tomb was found under the main altar. In 1923, in the presence of Swedish celebrities military ceremony was held, during which a plaque was unveiled, fixed into the right side behind the altar. Yet today it faded oak wreaths and the Swedish national colours: yellow and blue. Before the Goodbye with the Church let us also mention one beautiful habit, which in Byczynie used. Every year during the harvest festival garnishes to flowers and obkłada fruits and agricultural crops, a baptismal font, kneeler and stalls in the chancel. Picturesqueness and sensuality of this custom would be worth emulating in other towns. Proud building of times past with your art and curio business spoke to us and for some time was fascinated by us. Also the chronicler was allowed to vote. Many, however, remain a mystery. "If the stones and bricks have been able to tell toby about the changing fate of this structure much better informed than contemporary relationships". However, is persistently: "This beautiful church today bears witness to the enduring power, the sacrificial faith and pious AWE our ancestors" (Glauer) Footnotes * Rothenburg-a charming town in Bavaria ** Grünewald, Matthias-Renaissance painter of German translation: Elizabeth Bereska Development and footnotes: Piotr Górok, Anna Bereska-Trybuś