Market day

Market day Ein Markttag (approximately 1400)

O.f. Glauer, Wie's daheim einst war. Bilder aus der Vergangenheit der Stadt Pitschen von Otto Fritz Glauer, Kreuzburg O.S., 1928. Source: Opole Digital Library

Document 1 2 3 4 in the middle ages fairs were for Byczyny much greater importance than dzisiaj1 because all year round trade limited [only] to the market stalls. In the days of the trade fair the whole trade was free, then also visiting merchants can offer all of this and in any quantity. In the market day came from afar not only merchants and traders. The fair also attracted crowds from surrounding areas, migratory students and religious, but above all Poles abroad, because it offered many new and attractive goods. Lucä2 describes in his memoirs: how to byczyńskich markets was crowd ościenni Polish nobles with his entourage, sometimes flocked frontier voivodes who your "Insolentien" (insolence) not only does not napędzali byczynianom scared, but locals often in such a way zapędzali them into a corner, that none of them could not get here more to show. In Byczynie there were two markets, namely in the post and on the John, but this one fairly hydrochloric acid. It was only in 1910. the town received the right to organize the fourth, in 1644. the fifth 3 when it is market day Byczyna looks different than usual.  On the Town Hall flies the red flag as long as it hangs-suburban retailers have the right trade fair. By all three gates: the Polish, German and Sand enter the Middle peasants. At the gate of the German has a monstrous ciżba, because everyone, who wants to cross the narrow passage is by the guards carefully searched and an en has his hands full. Food items, which the city needs, you can enter for free, all other goods are customs cleared. Peasant carts are cleared quickly, longer deal with the interests of the large freight wagons, which content is hidden under a large linen cover. After completion of the inspection queue laboriously takes place until the weight of the city by the Town Hall, where the goods are weighted and is paid the tax. On the stands and tables, almost and benches are spread out: local products, but also imported items of value and utility. Before the sales pressure and glides to a crowd of buyers: strangers and locals variously przemieszani. Particularly large crowd there before the benches chlebowymi and meat, then above all was a overindulge ourselves. In bakers was available a variety of unusual breads, namely: pretzels, strucle, rolls and salt cookies, pastry chef had even fried in oil Donuts, pancakes and tongue twisters (pastries), which dishes were prepared and which were much sought after by the soft palate. A hundred things that today we find on our markets, already were available, to a hundred others that currently are not known and which we have just explained. "Blacks shoemakers" offered heavy black shoes, small shoemakers "korduaner" shoes with coloured skin with szpicami, bag makers-belts and straps, saddlers-harness and saddles, bytomianie-gloves and leather bags. Smiths ' Guild, who are divided into those from chains, from nails, knives, and they put clips manufacturers its products a robots: cheats and nails, knives and clamps, ears and hooks. Women and girls met their need for threads and raw canvas and are now heavily zaaferowane at one booth, which offers an important novelty: the first pin. There are even Stonecutters, kapelusznicy, Coopers, tanners tinting on white and the red color, the manufacturer of cables, wheels, glass, dziewiarze, cooks and traffickers. However, being fair in Byczynie focuses on the products of farming, animal husbandry and beekeeping, therefore trade shows are very popular among the Polish people. Grain, flour, flax, cattle, leather, wool, wax and honey are the main articles of trade are here big demand and which the city owes its prosperity. But also very sought after variety of spices, especially for the price is pepper. In addition to this you can get peas, beans, poppy, caraway seeds, hops, fruit, SOAP, tar and a thousand other things of daily use. On the market square a crowd of newcomers and the locals is the largest. Between the miastowymi and peasants, nobliwymi rajcami and chic ladies crowd to a stranger: the poles and the Polish Knights with your paziami from the surrounding castles, religious brothers and sisters from the nearby monasteries living according to religious rules, but has also the right to be in the world. The colourful and vibrant trendy garments with approximately 1400 years: jackets and smocks farmers short adjacent vests people State Knights coats with hoods decorated with fur, to the multi-colored leg pads worn instead of trykotowych rajtuz, and finally long decorated with hanging sleeves women's clothes are all amazing painting picture. On street corners are shown the curiosities: a tamed the snakes and exotic animals. Medics and the manufacturer the ointment skrzeczącymi votes in favour, recommend to all ailments of the body your potions and tinktury. Stalk them people, among which there are a lot of gullible, but not all of them are. Musicians with violin, guitar and his bagpipes win its merry melodies. Before the crowd, and the crowds taverns szynkach a hullabaloo. In the evening jarmarczna flag on City Hall is removable and the City Hall Bell announces the end of the fair. Then, the cars and the people pulled up to the gates outside the gate is closed, the town is back peace and silence. Residents after exercise and anxieties of exchange experience between them until dark "he shrouds the streets and noisy day. Several thieves have been covered, including cutthroat sits behind bars. Despite the sharp bans several drunken companions makes that the streets are dangerous, but the night patrol and municipal police also soothe and those unruly appendages. You may here find a brief mention of the prices and earnings then. In the Middle Ages it was a disruptive way of payment and counting. Count in the Byczynie properly as today in brands, but this medieval brand was not a coin, no paper money, but the weight of 159 grams of fine silver. The brand of silver stained by today's money about 28 Reichsmark4. Mark she shared on 4 wiardungi (German. Vierdung5-. ), the wiardunek was on 6 skot, skot 4 quarts, one quart to 6 harów or Pfennig. Only whipped a coin was a silver denar, which had a value of about 5 Pfennig. So, for example, pay 1 wiardunek, must have either 144 silver Pfennig individually enumerated, or weigh the weight so much broken silver until you have reached the weight of one wiardunka (ok. 40 grams). In the Czech Republic and Saxony used the pennies and Pfennig and, when together with the Czech fief was the Shore of Byczyna (1329), also in the Byczynie began to count in the penny difference one brand (March argenti puri6) contain 48 Prague cents, one cent-9 Pfennig, and later as "new Penny"-12. German order (guilders and krajcary (German. Kreuzer7 –. .)) was in Byczynie introduced in the 16th century. by Prince Gregory II. The purchasing power of the money in time, which we advocate, was considerably higher than today. Boeing, for example, by horse 35 (today's) brands, one cow-16, for the pig-4 brand, sheep-1.40 per meter (6.60 hectolitres)-7. In contrast to the feminine dress cost 28 brands, and coats for women-14, which at that time the prevailing fashion is easily explainable. Men and women were trying to race, where only was, precious to wear and therefore wear colorful and expensive materials was very big. Also those who have to pay taxes, or need a larger sum of money and for this reason have to sell grain or cattle, they were in a difficult position, because its goods were getting little money compared to today's possibilities. Employee earnings of that time seem to us today, the ridiculously low. In 1426 he krawcowi paid for work [as follows]: for one pair of simple nieocieplanych Pants 2 Denarii, the same trousers, but with front and rear reinforcing patch-8 Denarii, for coat-18. Shoemaker received for the drawing up of a pair of boyish shoes 22 Pfennig, for a pair of shoes for the farmer to 30 Pfennig per one pair of solid shoes for Butcher-36. Mason received a day 22 Pfennig, and while he was majstrem-27 Pfennig. The carpenters paid each day 9 Pfennig, together with the Board, mercenary daily has 12 without food, but it was found that during the summer and winter are working from sunrise to sunset and who do not satisfy you, this will be not accepted in and on the outskirts and przepędzony. So look the old times, not always good for bumelantów! The footnotes:

  1. O. f. Glauer says about the 1920s of the 20th century. Introduction to the book from which the text is accompanied by the year of 1928.
  2. Friedrich Lucae-śląski pastor and chronicler of the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  3. In the text of the original there is an obvious mistake in the order of dates.
  4. the currency available in Germany in the years 1924-1948.
  5. wiardunek, ferton-1/4srebrnej brand (March argenti)
  6. brand pure silver
  7. small coin, from the 13th century. whipped in the Tyrol, initially appeared on the image of the cross, hence the name

Translation: Elizabeth Bereska Development and footnotes: Anna Bereska – Trybuś

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