Article from "Heimatkalender des Kreises Kreuzburg 1926, Jg. 2 "the oldest history of Byczyny.
The publication was taken from the pages of the Silesian digital library. Title of the publication: "since the dawn of Byczyny (1400)"Document 1
Document 2 1 2 3
From the beginning of the history of Byczyny (1400) Aus den Anfängen der Geschichte der Stadt Pitschen. (Bis 1400.)
Von Otto Fritz Glauer, Pitschen-S. (Byczyna Upper Silesia) Heimatkalender des Kreises Kreuzburg 1926, Jg. 2, str. 51-55
Difficulties that arise for making the short the oldest history of the small town of Byczyna, as are in the absence of any sources from the time of its inception very various. On the other hand, and this is the task of enticing, go down to the dark times long past centuries and examine the circumstances and conditions that prevailed in our small homeland (Heimat) before it was inhabited by German colonists. Most of our neighboring cities as Kluczbork (founded in 1252) and Wołczyn (founded 1261) is in a happy situation, with your old incorporation documents. Certificate of incorporation of the town, unfortunately, we don't have, which is why his early life is engulfed in a deep darkness. With respect to the oldest time somewhere to 1200 a year, we are limited to conjecture and assumptions, which are also due to the complex and ever-changing relations of that time are uncertain and half-hearted. Gustav Freytag has can right when it states: Byczyna is the oldest of the three towns in the district, no chronicler, no document, does not say when. Was already present as a firewall (Straßeensperre), where there has been the settlement of the area by the German colonists. " It is certain that Byczyna times Prince Henry and (1201 – 1238) already existed. Currently on authentic documents that arose before the TWELFTH age do not exist, which of course does not mean that the Foundation of Byczyny not occurred much earlier and it is not surprising that there is no basic act of the town. When in the VIII and IX century after wandering peoples formed the three major Member States Slavic (Slavenreiche), namely Polish, Czech and the Great Moravian Empire, Silesia belonged, and also of the Byczyna, which you can safely assume, until the last of them, but this affiliation was not strong, rather uncertain and loose, because at the beginning of the 10th century was subordinated to the Czech Republic, and in the end was. Population due to the geographical position of Upper Silesia between Moravia, the Czech Republic and Poland was Slavic, but not purely Australia, rather already at that time dependence on Germany. However, the old ones are the walls and towers of our city, then not yet solid, and that it does not there are traces of the Castle or Castle, is so certain that around the year 1100 was the Polish market, the old Slavic in the place where it was founded in Byczyna. Maybe it was also (why Koelling denies) of Poland, where the Polish court judge (judex curiae) perform the work. Your appearance of Byczyna then no different from other Slavic settlements. She was lying in the middle of the forest, cut unpaved road. On both sides of the road were covered with straw houses wooden beams with low Windows and doors, through which the ulatniał smoke from the furnace. Maybe around the village was man-made monuments, which pulled out of the trench. The inhabitants were serfs, who primarily serve his Lord. Duke also lived in a miserable home, his people told on myself to work, and he spent his time on horseback riding and hunting. Probably the Byczyna was later (1041-1052) even the seat of the Bishop. When in the Smagorzowie wheel Next (970) built the first Church in Silesia had to the local bishop because of the danger of war to step down and move its headquarters to 11 years to Byczyny. It was Bishop Hieronymus born in Rome, the Church in Byczynie, the seventh Bishop. By taking this also speaks the grandeur of our church buildings, which as the most able to be Episcopal Cathedral. On the other hand, there is no evidence that, in General, already existed. Also in the description of the Episcopal Office from Smagorzowa to Byczyny mistake in the name "is not excluded" from "Pitschen Riezen"-currently non-existent in Oderwalde1. It is certain, however, that before 1163 year no German town in our area was not known. In the year 1163 Silesia has disconnected from the Polish and was crushing on a larger number of small principalities. Racibórz and Opole coincided with Mieszko-he was made Rector. This ended the dependence of Silesia from Polish. About 1200 of the year was also preseca (from ProSec = shaft, przesieka). From the mountains dragged on, which reached up to the right bank of the Oder River near Byczyny and had a guard of today's middle and Lower Silesia before the attacks of enemies (Dr. Knötel). It was namely fortified las dam (Bannwald), where not allowed to cut trees and through him Kluczbork and Byczyna to a width of three miles were separated from the precincts of Zbigniew Namysłowski. You have created a protective here zasieki-between the trees laid layers felled tree trunks. In the middle of the 13th century the Mongol assault walked Byczyna (Tartars) who all gutted during; They destroyed villages and cities and by the przesiekę they reached for Wrocław. Under the Mongols were defeated by Henry II and retreated East. 2 it said Prince Henry and from Silesia, the spouse of the Holy Hedwig, who staunchly supported the colonization of our homeland, the German colonists. His successor was mentioned already Henry II, who in the year 1211 died heroic death in battle with the Tatars under the Mongols, then was Henry III, and Henry IV Duke of endowed with exceptional spiritual gifts and inexhaustible energy. This was by the Bishop excommunicated because imprisoned clergy, with a gun in his hand crashed sashes in the sacristy and ask for tithing in Byczynie (Bichina). After his death, Byczyna was Henry V, and Henry III of Głogów (Namslavia3, Berrostadt4, Creuczeburg5, Cunczstadt6 and Rosenberg7) then Prince Konrad of Oleśnica and in 1323 year Prince Bolesław III from the shore that it with your other holdings has adopted as a fief from King John of Bohemia and he forced laborers to you. Later pledged Bolesław Namysłów, Gmina Wołczyn and Kluczbork Byczynę for 3000 brands of Prague's pennies, Casimir of Polish. After the death of Bolesław the city has his son Louis, but Byczynę and pledged again David Duke Bolko I of Świdnica. Bolko I gave in your will this service on Kluczborkiem and Byczyna Princes Władysław and Bobby from Opole, who immediately attacked on our district, looting and robbing him, but were by Louis beaten and forced to release both. In 1372 he could finally Louis to pay the sum of zastawną. However, the claim of Kazimierz in relation to our hometown still existed. And when Prince Louis grumbled to the King on the Polish Commander, who destroyed the mill and belonging to the shaft, responded very strongly that "so far tolerate built on the German side of the shafts, however, is not going to tolerate this, after Louis took Cruczburg, Byczinia and Welczin (for the first time there is a Polish name Wołczyna), because his reign dates back to Borek" (the first mention about the village Borek). Thirty years later Casimir with Polish waived all claims against the Kluczbork and Byczyny and solemnly handed over the reign of the Czech Republic. Prince Louis has donated yet for life the town of Kluczbork, Wołczyn and Byczynę to his son Henry VIII, who, however, soon had them derogate his own son Henry IX. This document of withdrawal of Prince Louis and was issued in Byczynie 5 July 1396. From this it can be concluded that the Byczyna had to be the relatively significant town, once Duke Henry IX here temporarily moving his court. Certainly the Byczyna experienced moments of glory, although certainly they were expensive [for it] (. the crowd). It would be also the confirmation of the words of Gustav Freytaga, that of Byczyna is the oldest of the three cities in the County, otherwise, could not explain such a rapid and powerful heyday of the town, if would have been founded at the same time with Kluczborkiem and Wołczynem. In the year 1400 there was a division of the reign between Louis II and Henry II: "so that its part of the Brigg8 stopped in Ludovicus, Pitschen9 and Creutzburg10, and the Prince Henry took the part of Loebenn11, Hainau12, Olau13 and Nimptsch14". (From document withdrawal of Ludwig and 5 July 1396 of the year: we gave you this letter sealed our imported from the Biczschen stamp.) Relations in our country, as we have seen, as a result of the overall uncertainty, intricate family affinity Princes and because of the war, so unfortunately, that estate of Brest was in various hands and is often questionable, who held the real power. Under the weak rule of the petty princes, who still had a long and frequently could not find other than pawn their cities or to sell them, the owners of Byczyny often changed and individual soldiers "escaped" as the will-less object from one hand to the other. I missed, unfortunately, a strong ruler, under whose protection trade and agriculture could be here, giving birth to develop. Residents need to be prepared for the havoc the fields, look at rabunkowi their cattle and around the property. In such a situation, could not be said about the swing trade and crafts. Characteristics of then did not exist. Documents from the second half of the 13th century. describe that the artisans were providing their services to provide according to your own rules. As the year of the founding of the Guild in Byczynie should be taken one year 1536. However, it is known that already in 1393. for the benefit of the newly erected altar in our church was saved 16 cents as rent for half the benches slaughter and 1/2marki (5 Gulden) on half of the benches the umpteenth time. Therefore, it must be assumed that in the 14th century there were somewhat organized butcher's features and Shoemaker's. School of Byczynie to 1400 year there was, probably she was the child of the Reformation. Taxes in today's sense, of course, did not exist, could be of such speech among the nobility. However, the peasants were actually anything other than "living tax", because they always have and still only be, give and deliver. About starting and building the parish church of Santa Claus ad St. Nicolaum numerous documents from the 13th century, located in the Byczynie on Church Affairs does not say a Word. He had already exist. In this connection, that the wall of the city, three towers and Church are built of the same material brick, as granted it must be assumed that all of these buildings were created at the same time. The question of when it happened, there was no response. But not off, giving their age for 700 years. Of course, what is for such a small city like Byczyna built this size and magnificence of the Church, it is difficult to answer. However, since the beginning of the creation of it belonged to the bishopric of Wrocław. As the first parish priest in Byczynie mentioned he was in 1284r. Hartmud (or Harhing). He wore so he German and at the same time the oldest family name byczyńskie, which is the US at all. Thirty years later, Byczyna was the high priest. In 1376. was archiprezbiteriatem, which included the following Dick: Wilamowice, Kluczbork, Kochłowice, Paruszowice, Kuniów, Smardy, Rożnów and Skałągi. Above the chapel of St. Hedwig, which certainly is not much younger than the main church, patronage in 1383 year magistrate Prince Louis. The war period at tempests 1400 year is not much to write, because the Duchy was too small to carry its own war, except that it was under the rule of the feudal. Byczynianie not follow the winning banners, the reigning Prince, had to rather keep passively, often suffered, however, had no reason to defend their borders. It seems that despite his prowincjonalności Byczyna already in the 14th century may have some significance, because he came from the whole range of important personalities. We know that Henry of Byczyny was Mayor of BRZEG, Peter of Byczyny-Chaplain of the Knights of the Bank, Laurentius of Byczyny, he served as cancellariusa of the emperor. The oldest coat of arms of the town is on the seal in the document from the year 1415, which is kept in the State archive in Wroclaw. Shows the wall and two towers with transcription: s. BVRIENSIUM DE PITSCINA. (Seal of the inhabitants of Byczyny.) Called "Pitschen" you can finally say that the spelling and translation is very different. We find it written in Latin, languages: Polish, German, also półniemieckim, półpolskim, so was found about 25-in different versions. (Bicinum, Bichina, Puczin, Pizscina, Byscina, Pyczczin, Pitschin, Byczan, and many others. Koelling considers the Latin name "Bicina" for the most correct and the best). Adamy translators: 'Byczyna = cattle, and so the market bovine '. Koelling considers this in vaishnavism for valid but unsupported no historical justification. Gustav Freytag explains the name in German: on the outer side of the border forest przesieki [pʂɛˈɕɛki] (preseca), near the Prosna River was one of the firewalls which in Prussia was called Beitchen, and in Silesia Pitschen. There also was a German city. When the last Piast Duke Georg Wilhelm in the year 1675, with only 15 years old, died, Mayor Daniel Schmeyl of Byczyny (the progenitor of the family Schmeka) with two councilmen went to the funeral. This Principality, and with it the Byczyna, were by the Habsburg Crown Estate, within the limits of the fief, which did not recognise the Treaty of succession from 1537 between Duke Frederick II and Joachim II of Brandenburg. On that treaty based later Frederick the great his claims to Silesia, which led to the three Silesian wars, by what our home province came under Prussian control. (by Freytaga, Knötela, Koellinga and others) The FOOTNOTES
- Oderwalde – today Dziergowice Bierawa County. The context is questionable, that is about the same.
- Please note that the battle of Legnica ended in victory for the Tatar troops. The context of expression Galuera suggests otherwise.
- Namslavia-today Namysłów
- Berrostadt-the translator could not determine this name. Maybe someone from the readers on this text knows?
- Creuczeburg – today Kluczbork
- Cunczstadt-today Wołczyn.
- Rosenberg-today Olesno Śląskie
- Brigg – today the edge
- Pitschen Byczyna today
- Creutzburg-today Kluczbork
- 11 Loeben-today Nysa
- Hainau-today Henrys
- Olau-today Oława
- Nimptsch-today Niemcza
Translation: Elizabeth Bereska Compiled By: Piotr Górok